By García-Calzón S, Gea A, Razquin C, Corella D, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA, Zalba G, Marti A
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Shorter telomere length (TL) is associated with some age-related human disorders, but its relationship with obesity or adiposity parameters remains unclear.
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TL and changes in adiposity indices after a 5-year nutritional intervention.
TL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in 521 subjects (55-80 years, 55% women). Participants were randomly selected from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA centre after they completed a 5-year intervention programme. Anthropometric parameters were directly measured by trained personnel at baseline and on a yearly basis thereafter. TL at baseline and changes in TL after a 5-year intervention were assessed.
Higher baseline TL significantly predicted a greater decrease in body weight (B=-1.09 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.01 to -0.16), body mass index (BMI) (B=-0.47 kg m-2, 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.11), waist circumference (B=-1.15 cm, 95% CI: -2.28 to -0.01) and waist to height ratio (B=-0.008, 95% CI: -0.010 to -0.001) in multiple-adjusted models. In addition, changes in TL during the 5-year intervention were inversely associated with changes in the four anthropometric variables. The reduction in adiposity indices during the intervention, associated with increasing TL, was even higher among subjects with the longest telomeres at baseline. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of remaining obese after 5 years was lower in those participants who initially had the longest telomeres and increased their TL after intervention (odds ratio=0.27, 95% CI: 0.03-2.03).
Our research suggests that TL is inversely associated with changes in obesity parameters. The assessment of TL can provide further insights for biological pathways leading to adiposity. We show for the first time an improvement of obesity indices when an increase in TL is observed after a 5-year Mediterranean diet intervention.
PUBLISHED:MAY 6, 2013
STUDY TYPE:RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL
TOPICS:MEDITERRANEAN DIET, PREDIMED, WEIGHT MANAGEMENT, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL
By Nagila R.T. Damasceno, Aleix Sala-Vila, Montserrat Cofán, Ana M. Pérez-Heras, Montserrat Fitó, Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Miguel-ÁngelMartínez-González, Dolores Corella, Fernando Arós, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros
The PREDIMED trial showed that Mediterranean diets supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced incident cardiovascular events compared to a control diet. Consumption of both supplemental foods has been associated with reduced LDL-cholesterol, but it is unknown whether they can shift lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern. We investigated changes in adiposity and lipoprotein subfractions after consumption of the PREDIMED diets.
In a PREDIMED sub-cohort (n=169), lipoprotein subclasses (particle concentrations and size) were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after intervention for 1 year.
Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts showed significant reductions from baseline of waist circumference (mean [95% CI]; -5 cm [-7; -3]) and concentrations of medium-small (-27 nM [-46; -8]) and very small LDL (-111 nM [-180; -42]); decreased LDL particle number (a nuclear magnetic resonance-specific measurement) (-98 nM [-184; -11]); and an increase of large LDL concentrations (54 nM [18; 90]), with a net increase (0.2 nm [0.1; 0.4]) of LDL size. The Mediterranean diets with olive oil and nuts increased large HDL concentrations (0.6 μM [0.0; 1.1] and 1.0 μM [0.4; 1.5], respectively). Compared to the other two intervention groups, participants in the nut-enriched diet showed significantly reduced waist circumference (p≤0.006, both) and increased LDL size (p<0.05, both).
Lipoprotein subfractions are shifted to a less atherogenic pattern by consumption of Mediterranean diets enriched with nuts. The results contribute mechanistic evidence for the reduction of cardiovascular events observed in the PREDIMED trial.
PUBLISHED: OCTOBER 1, 2013
STUDY TYPE: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL
TOPICS: HEART HEALTH, MEDITERRANEAN DIET, PREDIMED, WEIGHT MANAGEMENT, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL